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However, the sanatorium phenomenon played a leading role on the American scene for many decades. The discovery of a host of new drugs—including streptomycin and later isoniazid—as well as generally improving socioeconomic conditions and wider public health reforms were among the most important factors that helped bring tuberculosis under control, although the disease was never eradicated as hoped.


Perhaps most important, Dr. Charles David Spivak epitomized the physician who understood and shaped health policy in a way that was sensitive to the connection between culture and medicine at a time when few others appreciated the link. It was established around , and Jewish life in the town dated back to the late eighteenth century. Kremenchug became a commercial center of note and at times boasted a substantial Jewish populace, which was considerably reduced during World War II following occupation by the Nazis.

Jews in Kremenchug generally made a living in traditional occupations as tailors, small shopkeepers, peddlers, or brokers. The young Spivak received a traditional Jewish education in Kremenchug, studying with his father as well as attending a cheder a Jewish religious elementary school. Chaim also received a strong grounding in the study of higherlevel Talmudic texts. In addition to his Jewish studies, Spivak, who was gifted at languages, became fluent in Russian.

Charles David Spivak with his mother, Deborah, in Philadelphia, Courtesy, Charlesa Wolfe Feinstein. Out of Russia through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Constitution alongside Russian writings on radical philosophies. Certainly, Spivak was exposed early on to a wide and eclectic range of political thought.

Yarros met Spivak when they were aspiring university students in Kremenschug and were preoccupied with preparing for entrance exams. The Russian Jewish intellectuals of the period identified with the general Russian intelligentsia and often admired and adopted their revolutionary, utopian ideology and radical thought. A crackdown on radicals, particularly Jewish ones, ensued following the assassination of Czar Alexander II in Even though only one Jew was involved in the assassination conspiracy, it triggered bloody anti-Jewish pogroms.

Spivak was living with an aunt in Kremenchug at the time, and he and Yarros were betrayed by one of their cohorts. They were clearly — 19 — Out of Russia in danger. In the early morning hours they were secretly put on a train to Kiev. As young Jewish men over sixteen and thus of potential military age were not allowed to leave Russia, they lacked necessary legal emigration papers.

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Spivak and Yarros were subsequently smuggled across the Russian-Austrian border and celebrated their escape in an Austrian inn. Castle Garden began operations in By more than , Jews were crammed into a one-and-a-half-square-mile area. Instead, the revolutionists viewed themselves as progressive Russians who would help bring about an enlightened classless society. In their desire to be fully accepted as culturally assimilated Russians, they homogenized distinctive Jewish influences into a liberal humanist agenda.

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Many Russian Jewish intellectuals who were transplanted to America struggled with the question of whether one could be a socialist and a Jew at the same time, as well as with broader issues regarding Jewish identity, religious observance, and connections to the larger world community,19 but these appear to have been moot points for Spivak.

Many years later he confided to his friend Dr. It reflects our soul and the soul of our people. This impetus also proved a precursor of the Kibbutz movement in Israel. Thus, Spivak was one of the founding members of the short-lived but influential organization, which achieved remarkable growth in just a brief time.

About a thousand members of the Am Olam group arrived in America — 22 — Out of Russia the following year. Chaim Spivak was among the second wave that year, part of the Kiev section led by Nicholas Aleinikoff, who later became a successful New York lawyer. Adolph Zederbaum, who like Spivak ultimately chose America over Palestine and also became a physician. Disappointment helped fuel the mass exodus of this group of young Jews from the Russian Empire.

In his attraction to the ideal of Jewish farming, Spivak was a product of the ideological currents of his time.

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Because Russian Jews had been prevented from participating in agricultural endeavors for centuries, the Russian back-to the-land movement held special appeal for Jews. The Am Olam emigration to America must have appeared to Spivak and his friends to offer fresh and promising opportunities, a laboratory in which to put their ideals into practice in the benign environment of the United States. It was on his journey to America in , in the Austrian town of Brody, that Spivak first met Abraham Cahan, a fellow Russian radical and later editor of the Jewish Forward, who became a lifelong friend. They were determined only to start colonies in which life, a new kind of life for Jews, would be beautiful.

I tried to find work. My halting English, my lack of experience in any trade, my bewildered look that betrayed the greenhorn, seemed to shut all doors against me. Our friends gathered about us, a generous, eager little group. But they, too, had only recently come from Moscow. Charles Spivak did not have an easy life after his arrival. Although short of stature and somewhat stocky, Spivak was handsome; with his ready smile, thick reddish-blond hair, and a full mustache, he was a popular figure in the Russian Jewish community.

Fellow immigrants undoubtedly served as a moral support system for newer arrivals, helping them adapt through networks that helped sustain the newcomers as they made the transition from greenhorn to U.

A popular immigrant joke that circulated among many ethnic groups at the time went something like this: I always knew the roads in America were not paved with gold, but I never imagined I would be one to pave them. Like most other Russian immigrants, Spivak spoke almost no English upon his arrival in the United States, and he possessed no practical work skills. The young greenhorn also worked for a time as a typesetter for The Jewish Messenger in New York City and, in the late s, as a farmhand and teacher at the Alliance, New Jersey, Jewish agricultural colony, supported largely by German Jewish philanthropy.

Before Winthrop there was only drudgery and non-contentment. There I worked peacefully and began to live. Lisbon Falls in the s was a typical small New England mill town and must have presented a striking contrast to the crowded streets of New York City for the young Spivak. The town was rich in waterpower and was the site of the large woolen mill of the Worumbo Manufacturing Company, which had been incorporated in Numerous small houses are visible in the background bordered by softly rolling hills, valleys, and trees.

It offers a sense of what Spivak probably saw when he ventured to Lisbon Falls. Spivak was offered night work. After nearly two months of the disruptive schedule his boss took pity on the young immigrant and reassigned him to the twelve-hour day shift.

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  • It also distressed him that the need for work was so desperate that no one, including himself, dared to complain openly to company officials, a surprising response considering his early radical ideology. This is a sober State. According to Spivak, local Jewish workers did not have an organized society during his stay, but they met often to reminisce, study English, and discuss literature; and they quickly came to the financial aid of their co-religionists when misfortune struck.

    To prevent a mass exodus of young Jewish men from the agricultural colonies to the cities, he suggested that each settlement establish a well-stocked library, a debating society, and a lecture series to help satisfy intellectual needs. It was soon apparent to Spivak that although his first years in the United States had presented challenges, there was also unprecedented opportunity. In other words, the Russian model on which the Jewish radicals were raised would no longer hold.

    Chaim D.

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    Here revolutions were not needed. Opportunities for advancement were open. Spivak was in Philadelphia as early as In , before the great wave of East European immigrants arrived, there were about 15, Jews in Philadelphia, most from German-speaking lands. It was during this period in Philadelphia that Spivak first met fellow Russian immigrant Dr. He was radical in his views, so were the rest, but even at that he had his own personality, his own way of thinking and doing things.

    His salary from the librarianship was meager, and he sometimes took on odd jobs such as tanning hides to make ends meet. In addition, his widowed elderly mother, who had emigrated from Russia several years after Spivak had arrived and who lived with and was supported by him at the time, suffered from severe bouts of depression and mental instability.

    We are fortunate that the diary of another young Jewish physician, Dr. It appears that Ball viewed himself as a mentor of sorts to Spivak and tried to guide him toward Americanization and modification of his early radical views. What a history his? How much trouble? How many things has he done to eke out a little living, and he is yet a young man, and now he fears he will go crazy too.

    I advised him to move from the little alley, in which he now lives, out into the bright sunshine, with friends, male and female, with whom he can talk. Ball described the circumstances that had led to the elderly Mrs. She married at 15 to one twice her age, lost 10 out of 11 children and many of her brothers and sisters, the last one but a few weeks ago, and the knowledge of whose death was kept from her until, by accident, she learned of it, which set her into a passion.

    She has delusions and illusions, until she became too violent to be attended at home and was taken to the Asylum.

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    • While it was not unusual for Jewish immigrants to care for elderly parents, Spivak was only in his midtwenties at the time of the incident described by Ball, and in addition to supporting and caring for Mrs. Spivakovsky he was also working his way through medical school.

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      His experience growing up as an only child under difficult circumstances, first in Russia and later in America, may have been a key factor in his lifelong empathy for the ill and impoverished. The manner in which he reacted to the vicissitudes of life from a young age set a pattern for his life. When confronted with challenges, whether personal or professional, Spivak doggedly persevered by focusing on the tasks at hand as well as on his future goals.