The risk increases with increase in number of smokers in the house and with the duration of exposure. Asbestos fibres are microscopic in nature and when inhaled, get lodged in the soft internal tissue of respiratory system and can irritate the lungs. There is no safe level or no safe type of asbestos. The main sources of indoor radon are soil, construction material, and the natural gas used for cooking. Radon gas given off by soil or rock can enter buildings through cracks in floors or walls; construction joints; or gaps in foundations around pipes, wires, or pumps.
Radon levels are usually highest in the basement or crawl space. This level is closest to the soil or rock that is the source of the radon.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
Therefore, people who spend much of their time in basement rooms at home or at work have a greater risk for being exposed. Risk factors you cannot change non-modifiable risk factors. There is no proven way to completely prevent lung cancer, but there are steps to lower the risk of getting lung cancer. You can help lower your risk of getting lung cancer in the following ways:. People who have never smoked have the lower risk of lung cancer.
Talk to your children about harmful effects of smoking so that they know how to face peer pressure and do not start smoking. If you stop smoking before you attain 50 years of age, you can reduce your risk of getting lung cancer by half in the next years.
Your doctor can help you in strategies and stop-smoking aids that can help you quit effectively. If not, request them to smoke outside. Avoid smoking zones in public places like restaurants and bars. New ways to prevent lung cancer are being studied in clinical trials and may become available in near future. Lung cancer typically does not cause specific signs and symptoms in its initial stages. The patients may just have general symptoms of not feeling well.
Lung Cancer - Non-Small Cell | adapmotmiref.ga
In most people with lung cancer, the symptoms arise only when the disease is advanced. The common symptoms include: 1. Persistent cough that gets worse despite usual treatment. Shortness of breath 3. Coughing up phlegm sputum with traces of blood in it 4.
Coughing up frank blood 5. Wheezing 6. An ache or pain in the chest or shoulder 7. Feeling of extreme tiredness 9. Loss of appetite. The symptoms of lung cancer usually do not appear until the disease is fairly advanced and in a non-curable stage. The early symptoms of lung cancer persistent cough, chest pain and shortness of breath are similar to other lung problems such as an infection or long-term effects of smoking and are not taken notice of. This often delays the diagnosis. Screening means use of tests to detect a disease in patients who do not have symptoms of the disease.
For lung cancer, three tests have been studied for use as screening tests:. Of these three tests, chest X-ray and sputum cytology have been found to have a low sensitivity for detection of lung cancer. Your age is between 55 and 74 years 2. You have a pack-year smoking history calculated as number of packs of cigarettes multiplied by the number of years you have been smoking 3.
You are either still smoking or have quit in the last 15 years 4. You are in fairly good health you should not have symptoms of lung cancer or serious medical problems or metal implants or prior history of lung cancer treated.
- Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Screening is to be done every year till the age of 74 years or till symptoms appear. How can it be diagnosed? The symptoms of lung cancer usually appear only with advanced disease. If your doctor finds something suspicious in screening or you have any of the symptoms of lung cancer, further tests will be required to diagnose the condition.
If you have one or more symptoms indicative of lung cancer, you should visit your doctor, who will examine you and ask for relevant tests. He will also examine you for signs of lung cancer and other health problems. Depending upon the findings, the doctor might advise certain tests.
If something suspicious is seen in the X-ray, further tests will be ordered. CT scans can also provide information about the size, shape and position of lung tumors and help find spread of the cancer to lymph nodes or other organs. This determines whether surgery can be done or not. PET scan is also useful if your doctor thinks that your lung cancer has spread but does not know where. Imaging can help in detecting a mass in the lung, but the actual diagnosis of lung cancer can be made by looking at the cells under a microscope.
The cells can be taken from lung secretions sputum , in fluid removed from area around the lung pleural fluid or from a suspicious area using a needle or surgery biopsy. For this, the best method is to submit early morning sputum samples obtained after a deep cough for 3 days in a row.
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A possible complication of the biopsy procedure is air leak from the lung into the space between lung and chest wall pneumothorax. When large, it may lead to collapse of a part of the lung and trouble in breathing. This is usually self limiting and gets better without any treatment. The doctor can look inside the tube and see for tumor or blockage in the major airways or bronchi. Small instruments can also be passed down through the bronchoscope to take the biopsies.
Cells can also be sampled with a small brush bronchial brushings or by rinsing the airway with sterile saline bronchial washings. A hollow needle is inserted between the ribs to drain the fluid and check for tumor cells in the fluid effusion cytology. There are two types of staging system used to stage lung cancer.
They are number system and TNM staging system. Stage I The tumor size is less than 5 cms and it is limited to lungs only. There is no involvement of lymph nodes. Stage IV The cancer has spread to a distant part of the body such as the liver, bones or the brain.
Tumor T T1 — the tumor is contained within the lung and is smaller than 3 cm across T2 — the tumor is between 3 and 7cm across T3 — the tumor is larger than 7cm T4 — the tumor has grown into one of the following structures: mediastinum, the heart, a major blood vessel, the wind pipe, food pipe, a spinal bone, the nerve that controls the voice box. Nodes N The N stages for lung cancer are N0 — there is no cancer in any lymph nodes N1 — there is cancer in the lymph nodes nearest the affected lung N2 — there is cancer in lymph nodes in the mediastinum but on the same side as the affected lung or there is cancer in lymph nodes just under where the windpipe branches off to each lung N3 — there is cancer in lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest from the affected lung or in the lymph nodes above either collar bone or in the lymph nodes at the top of the lung.
Metastases M The M stages for lung cancer are M0 — there are no signs that the cancer has spread to another lobe of the lung or any other part of the body M1 — there are signs that the cancer has spread to another lobe of the lung or any other part of the body. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy may be used alone or in combination depending on the above mentioned factors. The surgeon might remove a small section of lung wedge resection , a larger portion of lung segmental resection , entire lobe of one lung lobectomy or an entire lung pneumonectomy.
A combination of chemotherapy drugs are usually given in sessions over a period of weeks or months, with breaks in between. It can either be used before to shrink cancers or after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may remain. In some cases, chemotherapy can be used as palliation to relieve pain and other symptoms of advanced cancer.
Radiation therapy can be either used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may remain or can be used as the palliative therapy to relieve pain and other symptoms in advanced stage lung cancer.
Targeted therapies are drugs that target specific molecular targets in the tumor cells. They specifically kill cancer cells only, block their growth, prevent cancer from spreading and can stop tumors from growing by blocking signals inside the cancer cells.