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Audible Download Audio Books. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Because of an independent film's low budget, a successful independent film can have a high profit-to-cost ratio while a failure will incur minimal losses, allowing for studios to sponsor dozens [ citation needed ] of such productions in addition to their high-stakes releases. American independent cinema was revitalized [ citation needed ] in the late s and early s when another new generation of moviemakers, including Spike Lee , Steven Soderbergh , Kevin Smith and Quentin Tarantino made movies like, respectively: Do the Right Thing , Sex, Lies, and Videotape , Clerks and Reservoir Dogs.
In terms of directing, screenwriting, editing, and other elements, these movies were innovative and often irreverent, playing with and contradicting the conventions of Hollywood movies. Furthermore, their considerable financial successes and crossover into popular culture reestablished the commercial viability of independent film.
Since then, the independent film industry has become more clearly defined and more influential in American cinema. Many of the major studios have capitalised on this by developing subsidiaries to produce similar films; for example, Fox Searchlight Pictures. To a lesser degree in the early 21st century, film types that were previously considered [ citation needed ] to have only a minor presence in the mainstream movie market began to arise as more potent American box office draws. In the s, the Democrats and the Republicans saw money in Hollywood. President Franklin Roosevelt saw a huge partnership with Hollywood.
He used the first real potential of Hollywood's stars in a national campaign. Melvyn Douglas toured Washington in and met the key New Dealers. Endorsements letters from leading actors were signed, radio appearances and printed advertising were made. Movie stars were used to draw a large audience into the political view of the party. By the s, John F. Kennedy was a new, young face for Washington, and his strong friendship with Frank Sinatra exemplified this new era of glamor.
The last moguls of Hollywood were gone and younger, newer executives and producers began generating more liberal ideas. Celebrities and money attracted politicians into the high-class, glittering Hollywood lifestyle. As Ronald Brownstein wrote in his book "The Power and the Glitter", television in the s and s was an enormously important new media in politics and Hollywood helped in that media with actors making speeches on their political beliefs, like Jane Fonda against the Vietnam War.
Former actor Ronald Reagan became governor of California and subsequently became the 40th president of the United States. It continued with Arnold Schwarzenegger as California's governor in Today, donations from Hollywood help to fund federal politics.
In , American film companies were largely immersed in the competition for the domestic market. It was difficult to satisfy the huge demand for films created by the nickelodeon boom. Motion Picture Patents Company members such as Edison Studios , also sought to limit competition from French, Italian, and other imported films. Exporting films, then, became lucrative to these companies. Vitagraph Studios was the first American company to open its own distribution offices in Europe, establishing a branch in London in , and a second branch in Paris shortly after.
Other American companies were moving into foreign markets as well, and American distribution abroad continued to expand until the mids.
Cinema of the United States
Originally, a majority of companies sold their films indirectly. However, since they were inexperienced in overseas trading, they simply sold the foreign rights to their films to foreign distribution firms or export agents. Gradually, London became a center for the international circulation of US films. Many British companies made a profit by acting as the agents for this business, and by doing so, they weakened British production by turning over a large share of the UK market to American films.
By , approximately 60 to 70 percent of films imported into Great Britain were American.
More recently, as globalization has started to intensify, and the United States government has been actively promoting free trade agendas and trade on cultural products, Hollywood has become a worldwide cultural source. The success on Hollywood export markets can be known not only from the boom of American multinational media corporations across the globe but also from the unique ability to make big-budget films that appeal powerfully to popular tastes in many different cultures. With globalization, movie production has been clustered in Hollywood for several reasons: the United States has the largest single home market in dollar terms, entertaining and highly visible Hollywood movies have global appeal, and the role of English as a universal language contributes to compensating for higher fixed costs of production.
In the meantime, Hollywood has moved more deeply into Chinese markets, although influenced by China's censorship. Films made in China are censored, strictly avoiding themes like "ghosts, violence, murder, horror, and demons.
Paul Gormley (Author of New Brutality Film)
Hollywood has had to make "approved" films, corresponding to official Chinese standards, but with aesthetic standards sacrificed to box office profits. Even Chinese audiences found it boring to wait for the release of great American movies dubbed in their native language. Women are statistically underrepresented in creative positions in the center of the US film industry, Hollywood.
This underrepresentation has been called the " celluloid ceiling ", a variant on the employment discrimination term " glass ceiling ". In , the " The Celluloid Ceiling Report conducted by the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University collected a list of statistics gathered from "2, individuals employed by the top domestic grossing films of The American movie industry has been greatly responsible for portraying characters of different cultures and diversity to fit into stereotypical categories.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see American Film magazine. Filmmaking in the USA. The Hollywood Sign in the Hollywood Hills , often regarded as a symbol of the American film industry. Main article: History of cinema in the United States. See also: Silent film. Main article: Classical Hollywood cinema. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: New Hollywood. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Good Neighbor policy. This section contains weasel words : vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed.
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Film portal United States portal. Retrieved November 5, The Numbers. Retrieved August 1, Retrieved May 30, Screen Australia. Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 9, History Channel. Retrieved January 15, Vampires, Race, and Transnational Hollywoods. Edinburgh University Press, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved June 19, Accessed December 7, Accessed April 16, Accessed May 27, September Thomas Edison. Accessed July 8, Accessed February 14, It had forests, rocks cliffs for the cliff-hangers and the Hudson River.
The movie industry had two problems. The weather was unpredictable, and Thomas Edison sued producers who used his invention It was not until that David Horsley moved his Nestor Co. Retrieved June 14, Archived from the original on September 12, Archived from the original on February 12, Hollywood Renegades Archive. John White. Film Theory and Contemporary Hollywood Movies. Warren Buckland. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Film.
Black and White Masculinity: in Three Steven Soderbergh Films
Paisley Livingston. American Horror Film. Steffen Hantke. Uncommon Cultures.